Do all plants make seeds
Gymnosperm means “naked seeds”. They are called this because their seeds are open to the air with no covering such as the seeds of flowering plants. One of the major groups of gymnosperm plants is the conifer.
The word “conifers” means “bearing cones.” Conifers are plants that use cones to house their seeds. Conifers are woody plants and most of them are trees such as pine trees, firs, cypresses, junipers, cedars, and redwoods.
Conifers reproduce using their cones. Some cones are male and some are female. The male cones release pollen. This pollen is carried by the wind. If the pollen lands on a female cone, then the female cone will produce seeds. The hard scales of the cone protect the new seeds as they grow.
The seeds of a conifer are winged seeds. When they are released by the cone, they will float on the wind until they reach the ground where they will germinate and grow.
There are some non-flowering plants that don’t produce seeds. Instead, they use spores to reproduce. Spore producing plants include plants such as mosses and ferns.
Spores are tiny organisms that usually contain only a single cell. Plants that make spores produce huge numbers of them. Because they are so small and light, they can be dispersed by the wind to new locations where they can grow.
Mosses are soft and spongy plants that typically only grow a few inches tall. They tend to grow together in clumps. Mosses don’t have flowers or seeds, but use spores to reproduce. They also don’t have typical roots like most plants, but anchor themselves to rocks and soil with short growths called rhizoids.
Another type of spore producing plant is the fern. Ferns produce spore casings on the underside of their leaves. These look like brown spots. At some point the casings dry out and the spores are released into the air.
Interesting Facts about Non-Flowering Plants
- The leaves of ferns are called fronds.
- Scientists estimate that some species of ferns have been around for over 350 million years.
- Conifers often have needle shaped leaves. Needles are tough, don’t dry out, and will not easily fall off in high winds. This helps conifers to survive in cold, windy, and dry climates.
- There are over 12,000 different species of mosses.
- Mosses tend to grow in damp areas with plenty of shade.
Kids learn about the biology of non-flowering plants including gymnosperms, conifers, cones, seed, spores, ferns, and mosses.
How Does a Plant Reproduce If it Does Not Have Seeds?
Concentrating on seed production requires a lot of energy from the plant itself — this process does not work for all plants and may actually negatively impact their numbers in some regions. As a solution, plants look to alternative reproduction, such as asexual means, including forming rapidly spreading growths or prolific spores across leaf undersides.
Rhizomes are underground stems that grow laterally from an originating plant, such as an iris. As the stem grows outward within the soil, it produces a new, above-ground shoot for foliage and photosynthesis processes. As the plant gains more energy from the sun and surrounding soil, the rhizome stems continue to spread to quickly populate an area. However, rhizomes cannot grow vigorously in compacted soil coupled with poor fertility. If you maintain your garden’s soil as a friable and nutrient-rich environment, the rhizomes retain their strength and vigor. Much like rhizomes, tubers form underground growths and eventual stems for reproductive success. Potatoes, being one of the most commonly known tubers, use the energy reserves in their bodies to cultivate new growths when planted in soil. Bulbs and corms store most of their energy in their bodies, rather than relying solely on the surrounding environment. When planted underground, they sprout and blossom depending on their stored nutrient reserves and available water.
Although seed dispersal produces more genetic diversity for a particular plant species, forming cloned runners above ground allows the plant to avoid energy depletion from seed production while gaining more nutrients from the surrounding soil. For example, runners develop from a strawberry plant’s crown. As the runner branches laterally, it slowly descends to the soil. As a result, it grows a new root and foliage system, referred to as a daughter plant. Retaining the same genetic information as the mother plant, these clones continue to multiply if conditions are optimal, such as access to ample sunlight and moisture. You can even remove the daughter plants from the mother plant to propagate your garden further in another location. In contrast, stolons grow much like runners, but have leaves for photosynthesis — they can produce their own energy reserves, unlike runners that cannot exist without attachment to the mother plant.
Some plants, such as cacti, grow new plants from cuttings. For example, fleshy leaves that break or fall off of a mother plant slowly root themselves in the soil. If conditions are optimal, this cutting eventually grows into a new plant. Cuttings help specific plants proliferate in unusual ways where seed production is not possible.
Plants that do not produce flowers, such as ferns, typically use spores as their main reproductive strategy. Spore-producing plants are often found in shady locations where seed production cannot occur since sunlight is scarce. Because spores appear on the plant leaves’ undersides, they must be lightweight so that the plant can produce as many as possible. As the leaves move in the breeze, spores detach and float away to another location. Unlike a seed, the spore must find nourishment from a host in the new location before it can grow into a new plant.
- University of Illinois Extension: Nonflowering Plants
- Biology-resources.com: Plants: Introduction to Vegetative Reproduction
- Southwest Educational Development Laboratory: Plants and Seeds
Writing professionally since 2010, Amy Rodriguez cultivates successful cacti, succulents, bulbs, carnivorous plants and orchids at home. With an electronics degree and more than 10 years of experience, she applies her love of gadgets to the gardening world as she continues her education through college classes and gardening activities.
How Does a Plant Reproduce If it Does Not Have Seeds?. Concentrating on seed production requires a lot of energy from the plant itself — this process does not work for all plants and may actually negatively impact their numbers in some regions. As a solution, plants look to alternative reproduction, such as asexual …